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Further, existing survey data may not capture all people who use substances — particularly those who are marginalized. This has significant impacts on the ability of governments, the health system, law enforcement, and the research community to respond to substance related issues and crises, and design and implement measures to help prevent crises in the first place. There is a need to systematically and comprehensively collect a wide range of data, including emergency room visits, poisonings, coroner reports, overdoses, prescribing rates, crime rates, incarceration rates, impaired driving rates, and use of treatment and harm reduction facilities, and to disaggregate these across social and economic characteristics, and sex, gender, and diversity factors.

In addition, data collection on Indigenous populations should be done in partnership with Indigenous leadership, communities and Indigenous organizations. Through collaborative efforts between the provinces, territories and the Public Health Agency of Canada, we have been working to collect data, surveillance and research on the opioid crisis , including reporting data on opioid-related deaths to Canadians on a quarterly basis.

To help address this gap, the Government of Canada is working towards developing and implementing a Canadian Drugs Observatory that would provide systematic and sustained data collection in Canada, act as a central hub to provide authoritative information about drug and substance use among Canadians, and inform Canadian drug policies, programs and decision making. Two key metrics used to collect this data include the number of hospital admissions and the number of emergency department visits. Complementing the need for robust and systematic data collection is the need to ensure that the interventions, models of care, and policies being developed and implemented on an ongoing basis are examined for their effectiveness and scalability, across jurisdictions, and for key populations.

This is particularly true as Canada is acting rapidly to address the multi-faceted issues contributing to the opioid crisis. A made-in-Canada approach towards evidence-building is essential to provide the information that jurisdictions and other stakeholders need to assess the impact of policies and programs for Canadians, and to identify ongoing need and update priorities.


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To this end, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research CIHR is supporting the Canadian Research Initiative on Substance Misuse CRISM , a national research network that connects researchers, service providers, decision makers, and people with lived experience from across Canada to address problematic substance use through creation of innovative programs and services. In parallel, CIHR is supporting rapid response mechanisms to address emerging issues in a timely fashion. CIHR is connecting those on the front lines of the opioid crisis with researchers to fill their most pressing information gaps, and is also supporting activities to provide information on the impacts of legalization and regulation of cannabis.

To facilitate the evolving evidence needs on substance use and related issues, the Government of Canada is further developing large-scale, innovative research initiatives that will supply the evidence-base for policy makers, key stakeholders, Canadians at risk, and those living with and impacted by problematic substance use, across jurisdictions and sectors. In addition, the Government of Canada will continue to support innovative research initiatives that will inform the work of policy makers, service providers, and those living with and impacted by problematic substance use.

The Government of Canada wants to hear from Canadians about how we can move forward with evidence-based policies and programs, and whether there are gaps in our approach to evidence. Thank you for reading this background document. Please proceed to the online survey to provide your input on future approaches for substance use issues in Canada. The Government of Canada is committed to considering all of the comments received through this process in developing next steps for the Canadian Drugs and Substances Strategy.

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Take the online survey to share your ideas. You will not receive a reply. Skip to main content Skip to "About government". Purpose 2. Substance use in Canada 3. The Canadian Drugs and Substances Strategy 4.


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How to get there — Issues for discussion 4a. Addressing root causes of problematic substance use 4b. Better addressing the needs of Canadians living with pain 4c. Reducing stigma around substance use 4d. Improving access to comprehensive, evidence-based treatment services 4e. Exploring innovative approaches to harm reduction 4f. Applying a health lens to regulation and enforcement activities 4g. Supporting Indigenous peoples 4h.

Addressing the needs of at-risk populations 4i. Grounding substance use policy in evidence 5. Next Steps Glossary Footnotes References. Purpose There is a growing agreement in Canada that problematic substance use is a health issue that can be prevented, managed, and treated, and that requires a health focussed response. This document provides background information, grouped according to the following themes: Addressing root causes of problematic substance use Better addressing the needs of Canadians living with pain Reducing stigma around substance use Improving access to comprehensive, evidence-based treatment services Exploring innovative approaches to harm reduction Applying a health lens to regulation and enforcement activities Supporting Indigenous peoples Addressing the needs of at-risk populations Grounding substance use policy in evidence This document has been designed to complement an online questionnaire that asks for specific feedback on substance use issues, including: What sorts of circumstances do you see within your networks, communities or in society that you think contribute to problematic substance use?

How can governments best act to reduce stigma across the country? What obstacles or barriers do people face when they want to access treatment in Canada? How can we better bring public health and law enforcement together to explore ways to reduce the cycle of involvement for people who use substances with the criminal justice system?

What are effective policies and programs to help improve access to prevention, treatment, and harm reduction services for at-risk populations? Substance use in Canada Why do people use psychoactive substances? When does substance use become a problem? Footnote 1 Problematic substance use is the use of any psychoactive substance in a manner, situation, amount, or frequency that is harmful to the individual or to society. The Canadian Drugs and Substances Strategy Addressing substance use issues in Canada is a shared responsibility between all levels of government, in collaboration with a wide range of civil society partners and stakeholders.

Goal and objectives of the CDSS The goal of the CDSS is to protect the health and safety of all Canadians by minimizing harms from substance use for individuals, families and communities. Guiding principles of the CDSS: Comprehensive Integrates prevention, treatment, harm reduction and enforcement approaches, while also including cross-cutting considerations such as stigma and at risk populations. Collaborative Recognizes that addressing substance use issues requires working together and that all levels of government and all stakeholders, including people with lived and living experience with substance use, have an important role to play.

Compassionate Treats problematic substance use as a health issue and not a moral one, and recognizes that stigma associated with substance use can be harmful to people who use drugs and lead to violations of their dignity and human rights. Evidence-based Seeks out the best available data, surveillance and research to support substance use policy and program design, and supports continuous improvements in these areas. The CDSS encompasses all substances.

Strengthening Families The Strengthening Families for Parents and Youth program is an internationally recognized, evidence based skill-building program for families with teens 12 to 16 years old. Housing First Approach The Housing First Approach involves quickly moving people experiencing homelessness into independent and permanent housing, without first requiring them to stop using substances.

Portage - Montreal, QC Portage provides specialized drug rehabilitation through its Mother and Child Program , offered in its Montreal centre, which enables women to be with their children while pursuing treatment, and helps build and strengthen parenting skills.

Take-home naloxone Inmates may be at particular risk of an overdose if their tolerance to opioids has diminished while incarcerated. Through Budget , the Government of Canada has provided funding to: support training of police officers with respect to harm reduction and the de-stigmatization of people who use substances enhance international cooperation, particularly with the United States and Mexico, to increase knowledge of issues, gaps, and best practices related to illegal opioids explore other potential domestic supply reduction actions, including addressing imported pill presses and encapsulators used to manufacture drugs, and the trafficking of fentanyl and other dangerous substances through the domestic postal system The Government of Canada continues working with China and other countries to stop the flow of highly toxic substances like fentanyl into Canada.

Overdose and Treatment Policies The Vancouver Police Department VPD has developed a specific overdose-response protocol where officers attend an overdose only if required e. The Government has committed to creating new and stronger laws to punish more severely those who drive while under the influence of drugs, including cannabis. Next Steps Thank you for reading this background document. Take the online survey to share your ideas Glossary Discrimination An action or a decision that treats a person or group badly for reasons such as their race, age, or other characteristic.

Diversion The unlawful movement of regulated drugs from legal sources and uses to illegal ones e. Harm reduction Policies, programs, and practices that aim to reduce the adverse health, social and economic consequences of the use of drugs, without first requiring abstinence. Note de bas de page 59 Note de bas de page 60 Prevention A policy or program aimed at delaying, reducing or preventing substance use.

Problematic substance use The use of any psychoactive substance in a manner, situation, amount, or frequency that is harmful to the individual or to society. Recovery A process whereby individuals work to improve their own health and wellness and to live a meaningful life in a community of their choice while striving to achieve their full potential. Social determinants of health The broad range of personal, social, economic and environmental factors that determine individual and population health.

Stigma Negative attitudes and beliefs about a group of people due to their circumstances. Substance s Refers to all psychoactive drugs both legal and illegal, including but not limited to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, opioids and other forms of drugs such as cocaine. Report a problem or mistake on this page. Please select all that apply: A link, button or video is not working. It has a spelling mistake. Information is missing. Information is outdated or wrong. Login error when trying to access an account e. My Service Canada Account.

Chapter Table of Contents

I can't find what I'm looking for. Other issue not in this list. Thank you for your help! Amitabh Bachchan to get Dadasaheb Phalke Award. Tremors felt in Delhi, north India after 6. India announce 29 probables for camp ahead of Bangladesh game. Snake-bites kill more people than cyclones in Odisha, experts tell you why. India News. Students should be trained on life skills so that they can cope with peer pressures. Families should be role model to their children by avoiding substance use and is recommended to manage the pocket money they sent to their children. Other interventions focusing on reducing access to substance should be implemented at federal, local and university level.

Global statistics on addictive behaviours: status report.

Socieety Addict. Drugs and alcohol: treating and preventing abuse , addiction and their medical consequences. Pharmacol Ther. Global status report on alcohol and health — ed. The magnitude of khat use and its association with health, nutrition and socio-economic status. Ethiop Med J. Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among in-school and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia.

BMC Public Health. Khat chewing habit as a possible risk behaviour for HIV infection : a case-control study. Ethiop heal Dev. Epidemiology of substance use among university students in Sudan. Hindawi publishing corporation. Journal of Addiction. Atwoli L et al.


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  • Substance use and associated factors among Debre Berhan University students, Central Ethiopia.
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Prevalence of substance use among college students in Eldoret, western Kenya. BMC Psychiatry Ethiopia demographic and health survey Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health. Gebreslassie M, et al. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among Axum university students, Axum town, North Ethiopia. Kassa A, et al. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Dove Press, Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation. Khat chewing among Ethiopian university students- a growing concern. Deressa W, Azazh A. Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia.

Kalayu M, et al. Effect of substance use on academic achievement of health officer and medical students of Jimma University, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Heal Sci. Substance Use and Associated factors among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Assessment of substance use and risky sexual behaviour among Haramaya University students, Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health.

Online Conducting School Surveys On Drug Abuse: Global Assessment Programme On Drug Abuse 2004

Bellis AM. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. Humensky J. Are adolescents with high socioeconomic status more likely to engage in alcohol and illicit drug use in early adulthood? Students, Martin BA, et al. The role of monthly spending money in college student drinking behaviors and their consequences.

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J Am Coll Heal. Download references. Our sincere gratitude goes to Debre Berhan University for its financial support and providing internet access. We would also like to pass our heartfelt thanks to all data collectors, supervisors and to the research participants who contributed in conducting this research. As I am the staff of the university, the data collection of this research was financed by Debre Berhan University.

The research design, data analysis, result write up and manuscript preparation are not yet funded and done by the corresponding author. TB prepared the proposal, analyzes data, wrote final report, and prepares the manuscript. Both KB and TK review the proposal and final result. All authors read and confirm this final manuscript. Correspondence to Tesfay Birhane Gebremariam. Approval from each department was taken before proceeding to data collection. Written consent was obtained from each study participants and data was kept confidential.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background Being a global burden of youths, substances use is unhealthy behavior that exposes youths to health and social problems. Methods Cross-sectional quantitative study was employed in May Result The lifetime utilization of alcohol, khat and cigarette among students was found to be Conclusions The current prevalence of substances use among Debre Berhan University students is low comparing to other Ethiopian and African universities.

Background Drug use, drug use disorders and related health conditions are major public health concerns. Methods A cross sectional quantitative study was conducted in June Discussion This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of substance use and factors associated with substance use behavior among Debre Berhan university students. Conclusion The prevalence of substances use among DBU students is low comparing to other Ethiopian and African universities.