American nationalism and, to a lesser extent, mainstream French nationalism since the Revolution have been modernizing. The four basic types of nationalism and their various mixes are specific foci of crystallization, popular transmission and testing of cultural modernization and can be expected, in its course, to recur. But an analysis of the more fully developed phenomena of nationalism — those which endure in contemporary nations — is likely to reveal the presence somewhere in their configurations of elements located on all levels of cultural modernization, and appealing to different groups in varying intensities.
Only this kind of nationalism, in any case, is likely to measure up to the demands by which cultures are now being judged. Nations are not the only foci of crystallization of such cultural processes. For these reasons, nationalism has proved to possess a reality-rootedness and resiliency superior to that of other civilizational movements of modernity and is likely to persist or keep reviving for a long time to come. Since nationalism and religion appear to be the only major sociosymbolic entities that are both a deeply grounded in actual communities embracing all aspects of life and including in their membership people of all ages, both sexes, in principle different races, occupations, and a wide range of specific ideologies, and b extending in their symbolic designs persuasively over all levels of modernizing culture, they are likely to prove the most equally effective competitors.
However, the relationships between religion and nationalism have been diverse. A part of this diversity may be accounted for by the level of cultural modernization of each phenomenon. The following hypotheses are proposed: 1 If an archaic nationalism and a fundamentalist religion seek to control the same population, they aim at a fusion-type alliance in which one side is absorbed into the other.
Epub Encountering Nationalism (21St Century Sociology) 2003
In the first case, fundamentalist religion tends to prove stronger than modernist nationalism, as in Arab countries; in the second case, the outcome depends on how strongly modernist political premises have become general culture, as in the US. As a collective enterprise of maintaining a deeply rooted cultural identity in the everyday practices of an actually operating society-wide community, nationalism is likely to function as one of the survival tests of contemporary expressive culture. The only question is: what kind of nationalism will persist and perform as one of the survival tests of contemporary culture?
How much weight the various possible components of nationalism will acquire in a particular case presumably depends on the raw materials of religious and political tradition which a nation can draw upon in modernizing its cultures, 24 on the current interplay of influential groups in a society, and on its international setting. The most important issue in contemporary studies of nationalism is whether conditions can be identified which promote either a militant or a humane that is, neither repressive nor violent kind of nationalism.
Comparative economic failure, perceived externally generated cultural inundations, a widespread sense of anomie, and large influxes of immigrants differing in language, religion, or physical characteristics appear to be among the conditions that reduce the likelihood of nationalism taking a humane aspect. In addition, unsettled territorial claims, particularly those concerned with archaic and therefore uncompromisable sacred spaces the Kosovo fields for the Serbs and centres Jerusalem , promote virulent nationalism. The symbolic design of nationalism may be as important as external social conditions.
This is a position which nationalist intellectuals can take without compromising either their intellect or their identity and without becoming flabby or naive. It is likely that, responding to the inevitable challenges of globalization, a significant fraction of them will continue to take such positions. Current East European nationalisms differ not only on the moderation-virulence dimension, but also in the extent to which they are moving toward or away from internationalism.
Among the nationalities still contained within the Soviet Union, the Baltic states are the only ones to have moved during the period of national self-assertiveness since toward a more internationalist position than before, in the form of increasing cooperation of the Baltic states up to joint parliamentary meetings. Anthony D. Undivided unities properly belong to primordial cultural designs. The archaic can be defined by efforts at unification of what has already been divided, whether by "evolutionary" differentiation, breakdown, or migration.
Such unification can have either a forward-looking, contra-anomic, or a backward-looking, anti-modernist, imaginary restorationist thrust.
Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Class in Africa : A Retrospective.
Or even be both at the same time for different people. Andreas Huyssen, After the Great Divide: modernism. Mass Culture. Postmodernism Bloomington, Ind. Daniel Bell's theory of postmodernity provides for both archaic restorationism and a liberal configurational postmodernism. The "inner demons" of a civilization which emerge in its archaizing restorationist programmes are elaborations, in a contemporary idiom, of persistent or recollected ancient symbolic designs already present in its make-up.
But, as Kampuchea has demonstrated, the inner demons can also be acquired in peripheral modernizing societies by borrowing from the "more advanced". Mike Featherstone, ed. For a suggestion that the "global scene" is best conceived as a series of flows and locations in which they intersect, see Arjun Appadurai, "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Culture Economy", Public Culture , 2 Spring, , pp. William H. McNeill describes this period as one of "the emergence of a cosmopolitan world system".
Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information This work explores three broad questions: what do we mean by nationalism and what are its important cultural aspects; why is it important to consider issues of nationalism from a critical viewpoint; what are the limitations of the construct of nationalism. In introducing and exploring questions of nationalism to undergraduates in a way that is accessible, critical, and current, the book seeks to avoid the use of jargon and concentrates on discussing the meaning and importance of central constructs.
Moreover, abstract arguments are bolstered by clear and specific examples drawn from the well of everyday life in the U. The recently held Olympics, diasporic lesbian and gay organizations in the U. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Colonialism, Race, Nation. Gender And Nationalism. The Limits Of Nationalism. Parades, Flags, and National Pride.
Fraught Legacies: Nationalism, Colonialism, and Race.
Redoubtable Essences: Nationalisms and Genders. Speculations on the Future of Nationalisms. The book is an interpretative essaythat seeks to realign debate on its subject. If you love an schedule, well pretty complete it.
21st Century Sociology: Encountering Nationalism 10 by Jyoti Puri (2003, Hardcover)
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