Manual Political Parties and Democratic Linkage: How Parties Organize Democracy

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Accordingly, parties with the longest traditions dealt with doctors and health workers to the largest extent in their programs, especially if they were part of the government coalition during the periods observed. The LDS did this from to , the SDS also did this from onwards, and the SD did so primarily between and , when it became the largest government coalition party after the parliamentary elections the only time ever. White indicates the absence of the theme in the program, and black indicates that the theme occurs 6.

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In terms of quality, the inadequate personal relationships between doctors and patients began to be highlighted during this period. During the general economic crisis that occurred in and lasted until , all of the parties mentioned doctors and other health workers to a lesser degree in their programs. One could say that the problems related to healthcare policy in Slovenia do not merely have to do with its implementation. One can trace the origins of these problems back to the party programs themselves, in which parties shape their positions on doctors and other health workers based on the external environment rather than the healthcare situation itself.

When parties did focus on them, they did so only from the viewpoint of economizing. Doctors and other health workers are an important political topic primarily during periods of economic growth and optimism, in which the larger and coalition parties dedicate their attention to policies outside economics and finances. Given that smaller and opposition parties do not include doctors in their programs, one can conclude that parties begin dealing with doctors when they cross the coalition threshold, and once the larger parties cross this threshold, they focus on the efficiency of doctors and the quality of their services.

Within this context, left-oriented parties demand a definition of the obligations and responsibilities of private medical practitioners e. It is important to note that the analysis of party positions on healthcare privatization is a special topic in Slovenia that demands an analysis of entire programs—which, however, was not the primary goal of this study.

In their programs, Slovenian political parties are often critical of doctors and other health workers. They mistrust them, reproach them with making errors, demand responsibility from them, and call for supervision over the professionalism and ethics of their work. These notably negative elements do not provide a good starting point for solving the problematic attitude towards doctors and other health workers. On the other hand, the appeals for a dialogue between politics and doctors are overlooked, as are the needs of healthcare professionals and the contribution of doctors and other health workers to reducing the gap between the desired and actual situation in this area.

Without a doubt, all of this is a bad sign for the much-needed dialogue and political deliberation. Slovenia is a system with a considerable share of neo-corporate mechanisms e. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Zdr Varst v. Zdr Varst. Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Jan 24; Accepted Oct Abstract Introduction The study focuses on the programmatic bases of Slovenian political parties since independence. Methods In the study, 83 program documents of political parties have been analysed. Results The results showed that doctors and other health workers are an important political topic in non-crisis periods. Conclusions Slovenian political parties and their platforms cannot be distinguished ideologically, but primarily on the principle of access to government.

Keywords: medical doctors, health workers, party programmes, political parties, Slovenia. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Footnotes 1 This applies especially to political systems with considerable neo-corporate components. Political parties and democratic linkage: how parties organize democracy.


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Party policy in modern democracies. New York: Routledge; Mumby DK. Narrative and social control: critical perspectives. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; Budge I, Meyer T. Domestic Standard delivery takes approximately business days from dispatch, while an International Standard delivery takes business days from dispatch. Normally track and trace and proof of delivery are not available on a standard service.

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The third is macro-level variables containing information about the country context and electoral system, as well as aggregate data such as economic indicators and democracy indices. This nested data structure, as depicted in Figure 1, allows for multilevel analysis.

Political Parties and Democratic Linkage: How Parties Organize Democracy

Between the final releases of the complete modules, CSES also disseminates advance releases of datasets periodically, which include partial data for modules that have not been fully released yet. Survey data collection for module 1 was conducted between and and focuses on system performance. Module 1 includes 39 election studies conducted in 33 countries. Survey data collection for module 2 was conducted between and and focuses on accountability and representation.

Module 2 includes 41 election studies conducted in 38 countries. Survey data collection for module 3 was conducted between and The module allows investigating the meaningfulness of electoral choices and, accordingly, focuses on a major aspect of electoral research: the contingency in choice of available options. Module 3 includes 50 election studies conducted in 41 countries. Survey data collection for module 4 was conducted between and and focuses on distributional politics and social protection.

Survey data collection for module 5 is conducted between and and focuses on the electorate's attitudes towards political elites, on the one hand, and towards "out groups", on the other hand.

Linkage institutions and political parties - US government and civics - Khan Academy

It thus enables research on attitudes and voting behavior in the context of a rise of parties campaigning on anti-establishment messages and in opposition to "out groups". CSES IMD includes over , individual-level observations across elections in 55 polities, with voter evaluations of over political parties. CSES data are available publicly and are free of charge. Data releases are non-proprietary — in other words the data are made available to the public without preferential or advance access to anyone. The Secretariat is responsible for compiling the final CSES dataset by harmonizing the single country studies into a cross-national dataset.

It is also responsible for collecting the district and macro data, for data documentation, and for ensuring data quality.


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The Secretariat, furthermore, maintains the CSES website, promotes the project, provides support to the user community, and organizes conferences and project meetings. The CSES research agenda, study design, and questionnaires are developed by an international committee of leading scholars in political science, sociology, and survey methodology. At the beginning of each new module a new Planning Committee is established. Ideas for new modules can be submitted by anyone.