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North American Hi United States. About Patrick S. Patrick S.

History of American journalism

Washburn is a professor of journalism at the E. He has been an invited speaker about the black press at the Smi Patrick S. He has been an invited speaker about the black press at the Smithsonian Institution, the National D-Day Museum, and numerous universities. Books by Patrick S. Trivia About The African Ameri Related tags 18th century 20 s 9 19th century 8 8 20th century 9 America 12 American 9 American History 66 American Revolution 18 anthology 9 autobiography 11 biography 8 business 17 essays 7 Founding Fathers 14 history History of Journalism 13 humor 34 interviews 12 journalism journalists 8 Literature - Journalism 7 media 81 media studies 7 memoir 54 music 21 New Jersey 9 news 11 newspapers 33 non-fiction politics 41 pop culture 9 read 15 Rolling Stone 8 to-read 61 unread 13 US History 11 USA 42 William Serrin Collection 18 writing What is MDS?

LibraryThing's MDS system is based on the classification work of libraries around the world, whose assignments are not copyrightable. MDS "scheduldes" the words that describe the numbers are user-added, and based on public domain editions of the system. Wordings, which are entered by members, can only come from public domain sources.

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Where useful or necessary, wording comes from the edition of the Dewey Decimal System. News organizations can take advantage of this by encouraging people to submit their cellphone photos and videos. Many reporters are using cellphones, especially the iPhone, to take photographs and record video and audio for stories. See this video of a man being hit and kicked by a security guard that was recorded on an iPhone by a UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalsm student while working as an intern at a paper in Iceland.

The video had 50, views within 48 hours. The iPhone now records HD quality video that can rival the quality of video shot on consumer and even lower-end profesional grade video cameras. Many accessories and applications also are available to do everything from improving the quality of recorded audio to letting you edit video on the phone. See also this 10, Words story about an earlier UC Berkeley Journalism School class taught by Jeremy Rue on using the iPhone as a multimedia reporting device that includes tips on how to use cellphones for multimedia.

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Cellphone applications have become popular because they usually provide a better experience than using a cellphone browser. But only 68 percent of those people actually have used the applications, and apps rank low among the cellphone features people prefer to use. Still, news, sports score and weather apps score relatively high in continued use after 90 days compared with other types of apps such as music or entertainment , and to a lesser degree in frequency of usage, according to a study by Flurry , an application advertising and analysis company.

Many companies are developing applications for the iPhone and other cellphones that provide geo-locational information and take advantage of social media. Read about how the Washington Post and National Geographic created tour-guide-like trips for Gowalla. Nieman Reports has a summary of a research study on what has worked for news organizations using Foursquare.

And check out how the Mission Local site embeds the SeeClickFix widget on its home page scroll down and look in the middle column. You can make simple iPhone applications like local guides using free services like Sutro Media. You just enter content into a template and Sutro Media generates a custom iPhone application you set a price for the application and split the revenue with Sutro Media.

See the Museum of London app that overlays historic photos on London landmarks. Yelp also has an augmented reality application for mobile viewing of its business reviews. And read about how the Boston Globe quickly and inexpensively developed an AR application to display animated versions of artwork on display at art events. Read about how 3, people signed up for a Groupon half price offer on cupcakes at a bakery in San Francisco and how other businesses have been overwhelmed by customers after using Groupon.

But another study by a Rice University found some businesses were less satisfied with the customers they got using Groupon. See also this New York Times story that raises questions about the viability of these discount coupon services. ShopSavvy displays product prices at online sites and at other local stores. People also can update the map with the latest location of the vendors and rate the quality of the tacos. The next generation of mobile devices will be wearable — from eye glasses to wrist watches to…. In Google introduced Google Glass , a pair of eye glasses that you can use to retrieve and display information and perform various electronic tasks like sending emails or sharing photos.

Tasks are performed using voice commands or by tapping or swiping with you finger a tiny sensor on the side of the glasses.

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You can use Google Glass to do a Google search, send an email, get directions, take a photograph, record a video, and access Facebook and Twitter. Several smart watches were introduced in , and many more are in development. They alert you to incoming emails, texts or calls to your cellphone. You can read messages on the watch screens or answer voice calls. Sensors and other devices that collect data and other information and transmit it via the Internet are proliferating. Predictions about how sensors would transform how we live and work have been around for a long time.

But the proliferation of smart phones that can communicate with sensing devices has increased interest in the area. The home is one place where sensors connected to smart phones are being deployed to measure, track or automate everything from heating and lighting to when doors should be unlocked. See for example the Air Quality Egg project, which allows people to deploy air-quality sensors to gather air quality information that then is uploaded to the Internet.

An earlier, similar project was called Common Sense. Using sensors to obtain this kind of information opens new possibilities for data driven news stories. People would stick the sensors in the ground and track rising temperatures that would predict the arrival of Cicada bugs that emerge from underground every 17 years.

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Another type of device being deployed for news gathering is the drone. Also referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or UAVs, drones can be used to get videos, photos and other information for news stories such as natural disasters or public protests.

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  5. Journalism schools at the University of Nebraska and the University of Missouri set up drone labs or programs to explore their use in reporting. But those programs hit a major roadblock in August when the U. Federal Aviation Administration notified them they required Certificates of Authorization to use the drones. The FAA now is drafting regulations on how drones deployed for commercial purposes can use U. Other countries allow regulated use of drones, and some news organizations have experimented with using them for newss coverage, such as the BBC with its Hexacopter.

    But there are a number of issues that are likely to restrict their use for news gathering.

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    These range from public safety and privacy concerns to limited flight time due to short battery life. But most of the devices failed to gain much traction with consumers. But years passed with no consumer product hitting store shelves.

    The new tablets include:. By January , 19 percent of U. In a June report the percentage of adult tablet owners was up to 34 percent. The increased popularity of portable tablet computers has sparked debate over whether news organizations will be able to take advantage of them as a new, and potentially profitable content delivery platform. Many news organizations have experimented with different types of tablet applications to deliver news and other content.

    But the app was discontinued in September — see Goodnight Peel. Lessons Learned. News Corp. But the app was shut down in December after it failed to generate enough subscriptions and revenue to sustain it. Flyp presented multimedia stories in a more magazine-like format that also included video, photos, animations, interactive graphics and text on pages you flipped through Flyp later became Zemi , which produces multimedia stories for publishers.

    And vook takes a traditional book format and adds video, interactivity and social networking. Apple also announced in January its iBooks Author tool that journalists can use to easily create interactive multimedia long-form stories for display on the iPad. Reading news stories was also one of the most popular activities for tablet owners, and 42 percent said they regularly read in-depth stories or analyses on their tablets.

    Tablet users are somewhat different in the kind of information they consume than users of other mobile devices like smartphones. Tablet users ore somewhat more likely than smartphone users to access news and information or watch videos on their devices, according to a survey of mobile device users by Keynote. The most popular uses of the iPad were search, web browsing and email, while applications to read news media content were much less popular. Tablet users also were more likely to have purchased magazines or ebooks than newspaper subscriptions.

    A majority of tablet owners who frequently used the devices to get news still subscribed to traditional media like newspapers or news magazines, according to a survey by the Reynolds Journalism Institute. But 60 percent of large tablet users said consuming news on the devices was a superior experience to reading a printed newspaper, and 63 percent said the experience was better than watching news on a TV, according to the RJI survey.

    For news media organizations, the focus on Web 2. Blogs, widgets, social networks, mobile devices, etc. Also important is the need to create news websites that are engaging and draw people to them. The problem of generating revenue from news content is exemplified in the struggles of newspapers. Most newspapers boasted big increases in unique visitors to their websites from — , due in part to their distributing links to their stories via blogs, social networks and other Web 2. Thus while the total number of unique visitors and pageviews at the newspaper websites has been increasing from — , the average time spent by each person on a site declined.

    Time spent online at a newspaper website is also only a fraction of the time people spend reading a print newspaper. A visitor spends an average of a little over 1 minute per day on a newspaper website. The more successful a site is as measured by pageviews, the less successful it is in engaging people for longer periods of time on a site.

    Part of the problem with engagement is due to when people tend to access online news sites. Traffic data from many sites, including the ones we run at the UC Berkeley Journalism School, shows that most people are going to the sites while at work. Thus traffic increases steadily starting in the early morning, peaks around noon or a little afterward, and then steadily declines through the rest of the afternoon and evening.

    So a lot of news content is being consumed by people in between tasks at work, rather than during leisure time. Increasing leisure time spent at news sites and developing engaged and loyal audiences requires creating more focused and in-depth topical content and making use of multimedia and digital tools like databases, games and online communities and social media to engage people.

    Newspapers, TV and radio news shows and general interest magazines generally built audiences by bundling together a variety of content — general news, sports, weather, business reporting, lifestyle and entertainment, and so on. The Internet dismantled those bundles, creating opportunities for niche products in each topical area that competed with general interest publications and networks. General news stories have increasingly become a commodity, available at numerous websites such as Yahoo!

    News or Google News or a variety of other online news aggregators. But local news sources, especially metro newspapers that serve a wide geographic area with a variety of content, have been forced to re-think their online strategy in the face of a new competitive environment online in which a myriad of highly focused sites chip away at the traditional bundled product. Some news organizations are forming alliances with competitors to share more generic news stories and thus reduce the cost of providing news that is easily obtainable from a variety of sources.

    Many newspapers are also adopting a hyperlocal strategy. Thus a local site would have sections on crime, education, health care, etc. See for example the Online Journalism Review story urging local newspaper sites to create online sections on health care reform — Newspaper websites offer no cure on health-care reform. Besides newspapers, the local market has attracted many independent community news site startups, as well as companies that have rolled out platforms for creating hyperlocal websites across the country. These sites are often filling a void in neighborhood coverage left by metro newspapers as their staffs have shrunk.

    In some areas, such as Sacramento , Calfornia, the independent sites are now partnering with local metro papers. Many other companies are targeting the local space, from aggregators of local news feeds and companies starting networks of local news sites to social networks adding location based features. Several online sites are trying to catalog the local community news sites that are proliferating around the country:.

    One particularly popular feature at many local sites is exploring the history of a community. Historic photos are especially popular. General interest publications and broadcast networks have found their audiences chipped away by niche products that offer more in-depth coverage of particular topics. The Internet has exponentially increased the economic viability of publications that serve smaller audiences interested in particular subjects.

    Many news publications are being forced to define what their core competencies are — that is what particular niche can they stake out and what specific kind of information can they deliver to effectively compete in this new environment? And how can they best organize the stories and other information they produce on their websites to serve people with more narrowly defined interests? A topics section will feature not just news stories, but other kinds of information about a topic to give people a sense of context and continuity on the subject.

    One model for the topics pages approach is Wikipedia , which has subject pages that routinely show up at or near the top of search engine rankings for searches on particular topics. This introduces a new taxonomy to our site, one that is based on persistent topics with links to resources under those topics, rather than the traditional section and article structure.

    This makes it much easier for our content to be found in search, as the engines can look at a single URL for any given topic. Because at least half of the audience on most websites arrives there after an Internet search, stories become much more attractive when they are enriched with articles, graphics, reader discussion and the like, Gingras said.

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    Participants yearned for quality and in-depth reporting, but had difficulty immediately accessing such content. Also essential to engaging people in topical sections of an online news site is to create online communities around the different subjects that provide an avenue for people to exchange ideas and discuss issues. These can range from creating news forums or social networks on particular subjects at websites, to providing space for user-generated content that is topically organized. Online video took off as broadband access to the Internet grew.

    About 65 percent of the U. The percent of home broadband connections has been steady since about — fluctuating between 62 and 66 percent. The popularity of online video is exemplified by the success of YouTube , which launched in Februrary and in was exceeding 4 billion views of its videos per day and 1 billion unique visitors each month. The explosion in online video prompted many print publishers, especially newspapers, to hire videographers and push their news staffs to start producing lots of videos in the mid to late s.

    Newspapers also tended to produce more shorter pieces than broadcast companies, according to the study done by Brightcove and the TubeMogul video analytics and advertising platform. Some of the fervor about video waned in , and a lot of newspapers are cutting back on video production and laying off video journalists, according to an Associated Press study. This was in part due to the continuing economic slump that caused major reductions in newsroom staffs. See, for example, this GigaOM story on the Brightcove study of newspaper video streams.

    Too often newspapers have adopted a helter skelter approach to shooting videos that results in lousy videos and few viewers. Huffington Post launched its own HuffPost Live video channel in August , featuring a live newscast with an accompanying stream of live viewer comments. The Center for Investigative Reporting launched a YouTube channel called I Files in August that features videos of investigative stories done by a variety of investigative journalism organizations.

    The project is designed to promote investigative stories using YouTube and better understand best practices in web video produced by investigative organizations. In December the format was changed from the TV-style shows format to individual video segments. Other newspapers also have dropped the news shows format in favor of producing individual videos on specific topics, a reflection of the difference in how video is consumed on the web versus on a television screen.

    See below in the Popular Videos section for additional video initiatives by the Wall Street Journal and other media outlets. Video can be very effective at bringing to life an interesting or animated character or a central place in a story, like Ernie and his sandwich shop. Video also is a very good for telling stories about food and places that serve food.

    Video of natural disasters and political turmoil also is extremely popular. Raw video of dramatic events, including clips shot by regular people, also is usually very popular, sometimes more than professionally done newscasts of the same events. The Project for Excellence in Journalism study of YouTube found that 42 percent of the most popular news videos was raw footage, and 39 percent was done by citizens. Based on studies of the kind of content people are most likely to share with others, videos that are fun or cute are most effective, followed by videos that evoke anger or disgust.

    Least effective would be videos that provoke little emotion. One news outlet that has had success with news videos is the Wall Street Journal, which was doing 10 million video streams a month in and nearly 20 million by May There is no shortage of demand to generate more video views.

    In the Journal launched WSJ Live , which provides live and on-demand videos to multiple platforms. In the Journal added WorldStream — very short news video segments shot by reporters on their mobile devices. The Miami Herald said its video traffic grew 25 percent in and was the 2nd biggest driver of visits to its website behind text stories.

    Other publications have found that just using a larger video player and displaying it more prominently on the home page can substantially increase viewership. Gannett reported that viewing of videos at its newspaper websites increased percent after it introduced a larger, more prominent video player in With people consuming more and more news on social networks and mobile devices, many news organizations are catering to that market with short news videos — usually 15, 30 or 60 seconds.

    Among them:. But there are indications evening viewing of web videos is growing , and tablet devices may increase leisure time viewing of video even more. The Project for Excellence in Journalism study of YouTube found that the average length of the most popular news videos was 2 minutes and 1 second — significantly longer than a typical local TV news story but somewhat shorter than a network evening news story. And while TV news stories follow pretty rigid rules for length, popular videos on YouTube were of widely different lengths.

    Thus 29 percent of the most popular YouTube news videos were less than a minute, 21 percent were one to two minutes, 33 percent were two to five minutes and 18 percent were longer than five minutes, according to the Project for Excellence in Journalism YouTube study. Bottom line — the videos should be as long as you think the story warrants. To quote Brian Storm of MediaStorm:. We have proven that to be false. The popularity of online photos can be measured by the growth of the Flickr photo sharing website. Launched in and now owned by Yahoo, Fiickr passed 8 billion photos uploaded to its site by But that is surpassed by the more than 15 billion photos Facebook reports having in its database.

    And Instagram , launched in October , has million active monthly users who upload 40 million photos a day. An example of a successful photo gallery was msnbc. Paralleling the increase in YouTube videos has been the spectacular grown of digital audio podcasts playable on devices like the iPod. Apple put the iPod on the market in Fall , and by more than million iPods had been sold.

    While music is the most popular media played on the iPod and similar devices, some news organizations also have had success with audio podcasts. National Public Radio reported the number of podcasts downloaded from its website each month reached 29 million in , up from 28 million in and 12 million in , according to data compiled in the State of the News Media report by the Pew Research Center. But the total number of podcasts produced by all sources began leveling off in To see what kinds of podcasts are most popular with listeners, check out the PodcastAlley website and its monthly Top 10 listings for podcasts.

    Besides radio stations, other news organizations, especially newspapers, had jumped on the podcasts bandwagon in the late s, but usually with disappointing results in terms of listenership. The New York Times said it would be cutting back on its podcasts in On the other hand, Slate reports big success with its podcasts , but in number of listeners and advertisers. Slate attributes the success to emphasizing opinion and personality in the podcasts and focusing them more on niche topics. Audio podcasts also can be valuable as a way to provide content for mobile devices that are increasingly in use.

    But on a website, combining audio with photos in a photo slideshow can be more effective as a storytelling device. One very effective way to add depth to a particular topic on an online news site is to include interactive databases and map mashups that people can use to explore subjects on their own according to their particular interests. Databases have proven very popular at news sites , with people spending large amounts of time on news sites exploring the information in the databases. Check out these other examples of databases and map mashups at online sites. Databases and map mashups allow people to customize data to their own interests and explore it to develop their own analyses of what the data means.

    Providing people with a place to post comments on the data then can lead reporters to do stories exploring trends readers have identified in the data, correct erroneous conclusions, or provide context for a better understanding of the raw data. But while scanning web pages is a common practice for online readers, they will read long text stories that they find of interest. Reading in the two print formats broadsheet and tabloid was considerably lower. Forty percent of stories selected were read all the way through in broadsheets, 36 percent in tabloids. Or read about how Forbes online found that short breaking news stories and longer explanatory stories both attract large numbers of readers.